(2000) suggested that the species was better placed in Urochloa on the basis of their studies using full-length sequences of the chloroplast gene ndhF to determine the phylogeny of the Panicoideae group. The values obtained in the control were significantly higher than the test experiment (Table 1). URL: http://delta-intkey.com [Accessed 04 September 2013]. (1997) demonstrated the existence of allergic contact dermatitis from M. maximus in 5 out of 46 patients with a history of grass intolerance. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 206 pp. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. Weeds of the Lesser Antilles. Guinea grass on the Aba road had the highest contamination with Nikel (6.4 mg/kg) and Manganese (4.8mg/kg) followed by Leord (4.1mg/kg) and chromium (3.1mg/kg). II Three methods and host spectrum for the diagnosis of the pathogen in Tropical Africa. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics, 2(1):53-59. In South-East Asia seeds provide food for birds such as Munias, and the long leaves provide nesting material for birds like the Baya Weaver (Ploceus philippinus). (1997) reported that flazasulfuron was highly efficient in controlling M. maximus in sugarcane when applied pre- or post-emergence. Palatability. Alderson J, Sharp WC, 1993. M. maximus is generally controlled by methods used against perennial grass weeds. Grasses of Southern Africa. The sample were collected in the institute and it was carried out in institute of agricultural research (I A R) A B U Zaria on soil PH and soil electrical resistivity. The biology of Lepidiota reuleauxi Brenske (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), a pest of sugarcane in Papua New Guinea. Control of M. maximus during restoration of invaded native plant communities in Hawaii is discussed by Ammondt and Litton (2012) and Ammondt et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the herbicide halosulfuron methyl alone or in mixture with acetochlor in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 214 pp. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Agriculture Handbook No. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. 1-20 (1989-2000), by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Daehler CC, Carino DA, 1998. The effect of adjuvants and vegetal oil applied at different growth stages on the control of Panicum maximum with glyphosate. New herbicides to control perennial grasses. Simon & Jacobs, Megathyrsus maximus var. Rome, Italy: FAO, 158-167. It is recommended that the tanneries and textile industries should developed a highly efficient method of treating chromium and other pollutant present to ensure that effluent are within the FEPA standard discharging in to the environment. Brown WV, 1977. CASAFA report series No. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and broomcorn, used in making brooms and brushes. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 11 pp.. The Teacher revises the previous lesson (PROCESSES OF SOIL FORMATION). In upland rice in Nigeria, chemical weed control with piperophos and propanil gave the best yields in field trials (Enyinnia, 1992). In heavy soils, initial development is slow and leaf area is small (Alves and Xavier, 1986). 5-Year Review. In: U.S. A Study Of Socio-Economic Importance And Methods Of Controlling Weeds Among Rural Farmers In Yala Local Government Area Of Cross River State, Nigeria. Field tests of a pathogen mixture for bioherbicidal control of guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.). Amaranth to zai holes: ideas for growing food under difficult conditions. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper (FAO, Rome), 120:349-353. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Other studies have demonstrated that the open paniculate inflorescence of M. maximus is found in most species of Panicum, and this trait is a very strong morphological indication that this species should not be transferred to either Bracharia (Brown 1977) or Urochloa (Webster 1987), because species within these two genera have strict paniculate inflorescences (raceme of racemes). Weeds - The silent invaders. Good soil management is important for good control and management of perennial grass weeds such as M. maximus. Fresh seeds have some initial dormancy; germination is greater after 6 months dry storage (Holm et al., 1977). Little K, 1999. Volume 5. In forage grass trials, tebuthiuron at 336 kg ai/ha gave excellent control of weeds in Guinea grass pasture but with severe crop injury. Generic limits among the relatives of Panicum need critical revision in terms of comparative data recorded at world level. guinea grass pasture may be the promising alternative because it may be cheaper, do not harm environment and legume is more nutritious than grass. M. maximus is native to Africa but has been widely introduced to other regions as a pasture forage crop and is now pantropical in distribution. 2014d, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Papers presented at the panel of experts on ecology and control of perennial weeds held in Santiago, Chile, 28 November - 2 December 1983. Five focus group discussions comprising eight participants each, 10 key informants among household heads/women 15 in-depth interviews with chiefs/forest custodians were conducted. The proposed network has three layers. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 138 pp.. While researchers have documented impacts of deforestation, there have been few studies on deforestation, forest scarcity and adaptation strategy in Sapele, Delta State Nigeria. Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. World wide web page at http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/guinea_grass.htm. Valle LACdo, Ferraz S, Dias WP, Teixeira DA, 1996. Ellis RP, 1988. Economic Importance. Leaf blades linear to narrowly lanceolate, (6-)12-40(-100) cm long, (4-)12-35 mm wide, narrowed or straight at the base, flat membranous or herbaceous, glabrous or sparsely pilose to pubescent, acuminate (after Clayton et al., 1974).Floral morphologyM. M. maximus on Mona Island (Puerto Rico) is associated with negative impacts on the demography of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis. The study focused on articulating the soil, sampling and assessing contaminated soil and uncontaminated soil, determining and comparing the soil characteristics of the contaminated and uncontaminated soil. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. B.K. … Gon¦alves JLde M, Gon¦alves JC, Oliveira DBde, Simionato JLdo A, Gandara F, Cenci S, 1999. Austrobaileya, 6(3):571-574. http://www.europe-aliens.org/, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Paris, France: Département d'Économie et Sociologie Rurales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Mycorrhizas and Fungi of Economic Importance; Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation - (FF400) Pests, Pathogens and Biogenic Diseases of Plants - (FF600) Plant Breeding and Genetics - (FF020) Plant Composition - … These observations are discussed in the light that smoke may play an important ecological role in the management and control of introduced weeds in native and arable communities in Australia. v + 156 pp. Green P, 1994. Kleinschmidt HE, Johnson RW, 1977. M. maximus is a robust, highly variable grass. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. In: Ecology and Control of Perennial Weeds in Latin America. Stirling GR, Nikulin A, 1998. Proceedings of the seventh Australian weeds conference, 1984, Volume I [edited by Madin, R.W.] Conklin FS, McCarty TC, Miller SF, 1982. It does not tolerate more than an occasional light frost. General Local movement can occur in contaminated soil on agricultural equipment. GeneticsM. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomi^acute~a, Universidad del Zulia, 16(3):266-275; 15 ref. Principles and practices. Weed management in sugarcane. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Therefore this study examines the comparative effectiveness of modern and indigenous creative modelling instructional media (clay and plastercine) on the junior secondary creative arts education in Abuja, Nigeria. It forms dense stands up to 2 m tall to outcompete native species (ISSG, 2004). Unpublished. The life history of Borbo impar lavinia (Waterhouse) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii. Qualitative data were content analysed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. The non-crop weed control market its wants and needs a review. Guinea grass is well eaten by all classes of grazing livestock, with particularly high intakes of young leafy plants (Cook et al., 2005). Paper presented to the Society for Growing Australian Plants' Queensland Region Conference, 28 June-5 July, 1998, Townsville, Australia. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 30 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2014/r1/I0VL_I01.pdf, USDA-ARS, 2004. Boyer de la Giroday E, Chatenet M, Baudin P, 1979. Increase in the motor vehicular traffic and its associated emissions on the roads side areas have led to a sharp increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. In: Ecology and Control of Perennial Weeds in Latin America. It is also found in the tropical parts of the Old World, including Israel (Oren, 1988), throughout sub-Saharan Africa (Gibbs Russel et al., 1955) and in Indonesia (Galinato et al., 1999), India, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam (Moody, 1989), elsewhere in Asia (Holm et al., 1979), throughout the Pacific Islands (PIER, 2004) and in the Lesser Antilles (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991). Weeds the silent invaders. 2012, Hylaeus assimulans (assimulans yellow-faced bee), US Fish and Wildlife Service, It grows so quickly that it smothers seedlings of native plants and produces high fuel loads for fires resulting in the deterioration of fire-sensitive communities (Calvert, 1998). Acta Oecologica, 41:30-38. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1146609X. M. maximus is recorded as an alternative host of many insect pests and diseases of cereal crops and sugarcane but no surveys have been made to determine whether there are specific natural enemies which might be potential biological control agents. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 21 pp.. It was evidenced that the aerobic capacity of males was higher than females. Restoration of native plant communities in a Hawaiian dry lowland ecosystem dominated by the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus. In: Schiedea spergulina var. ISSG, 2006. Revista A^acute~rvore, 23(3):259-270; 16 ref. 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